BCUG ARCHIVES

Interesting records 2004

Red-throated Loon {=Red-throated Diver} (Gavia stellata) [TZITHELGULA GHORIKHVA]
Irregular rare winter visitor along the whole length of the Georgian section of the Black Sea coast and occasional visitor at some large freshwater lakes at Kolkhida Lowland. Usually, it records by single individuals, rarely by small groups in mixed flocks of waterfowl from middle of December to end of February.
- three were in Chorokhi River mouth on 12 February;
- single was in Rioni River mouth on 13 February;
- three were in port of Poti on 14 February,
- single was in SW corner of Paleostomi Lake on 14 February 2004. Rare visitor to area.

Black-throated Diver (Gavia arctica) [SHAVGULA GHORIKHVA]
Rare winter visitor to Black Sea coastal waters. Occasionally recorded inland.
- six were on 12 February 2004 between Turkish border and Chorokhi River mouth, single on the same day was in Chorokhi River mouth;
- four single individuals were recorded at sea coast within the limits of Batumi town, two were in port of Batumi, two were under cliff of Mtzvane Kontskhi on 12
February 2004;
- solitary was at Didi Narionali pond on 15 February 2004. A very rare inland occurence.

Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) [MTSIRE MURTALA]
Uncommon migratory breeder at some wetlands of Javakheti Upland, rare breeder in western Georgia and occasional breeder at wetlands of Kolkhida Lowland. Uncommon to common passage and winter visitor.
- twenty-two were at Vartsikhe reservoir on 2 February. High concentration to site;
- five (on 12 February), four (on 13 February) and seven (on 14 February) were at lake in Batumi town;
- 63+ were in southern part of Paleostomi Lake on 14 February 2004. High concentration.
- 214+ individuals were counted at Narionali lakes on 15 February 2004. The highest winter count for this site.

Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) [TZITHELKISERA MURTALA]
Regular but scarce on passage along sea coast and very rare on the lakes of continental part of country. In spring this species migrates in the end of March - 1st week of April. The autumn transit starts in late September and lasts till end of October. Regular winterer in small numbers in coastal waters.
- single was in Chorokhi River mouth on 11 February;
- ten were along western bank of Paleostomi Lake on 14 February;
- single was at Japana fish-pond on 15 February 2004;
- min 40 individuals were on 3 June on Khanchali Lake.

Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) [DIDI MURTALA]
Uncommon migratory breeder at some lakes of Southern Georgia. Uncommon to common passage migrant and quite common and numerous winter visitor. It is sighting mainly in coastal waters, seldom small flocks are halting on passage and in winter on inland waters.
At least 9053 were counted in Georgia during winter survey on 11-14 February 2004
- at least 9009 individuals in Western Georgia, i.e. in Black sea basin and 44 in Eastern Georgia, i.e. in Caspian Sea basin:
- 7626+ were in coastal waters between Turkish border and Rioni River mouth;
- 38 were in Chorokhi River mouth on 11 February;
- three were at small lake in Batumi town on 11 February;
- 187+ were at mouth and lower Rioni River on 13 February;
- 21 were at Khidmaghala fish-pond on 13 February;
- 911+ were at lakes Paleostomi Lake basin (Paleostomi, Patara Paleostomi, Imnati lakes, Maltakva River, Pichori River and canals) on 14 February;
- 31 were at Narionali lakes on 15 February;
- 151+ were at lower Khobi River on 15 February;
- 34+ were at Rioni River between Vani and Vartsikhe reservoir on 15 February;
- seven were at Vartsikhe reservoir on 16 February;
- 33 were at Jandary Lake on 17 February;
- single was at Kumisi Lake on 17 February;
- four were at Tbilisi reservoir on 19 February;
- six were at Kura (Mtkvari River) in Gardabani forest-game reserve on 22 February;
Beside these winter counts, twenty-one were presented on 21 January at Vartsikhe reservoir, that is high concentration to area.
- about 40 breeding pairs were found at Khanchali Lake on 3 June;
- at least 223 were at Khanchali Lake on 16 July;

Slavonian Grebe (Podiceps auritus)
Very rare (occasional) winter visitor. Usually occurs in flocks with Great Crested Grebe.
- two were in mixed flock of grebes and ducks on 14 February at Paleostomi lake, that was only one known record of this species in Georgia during 2004.

Black-necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) [SHAVKISERA MURTALA]
Uncommon passage and winter visitor. More common in coastal waters. Regular, but not numerous breeder at lakes of Javakheti Upland and Bashkei Lake, Southern Georgia.
At least 441 were counted in Georgia during winter survey on 11-14 February 2004 - at least 439 individuals in Western Georgia, i.e. in Black sea basin and only two in Eastern Georgia, i.e. in Caspian Sea basin:
- 143+ were in coastal waters between Turkish border and Rioni River mouth;
- 23 were in Chorokhi River mouth on 11 February;
- ten were at mouth and lower Rioni River on 13 February;
- eight were at Khidmaghala fish-pond on 13 February;
- 219+ were at lakes Paleostomi Lake basin (Paleostomi, Patara Paleostomi, Imnati lakes, Maltakva River, Pichori River and canals) on 14 February;
- 11 were at Narionali lakes on 15 February;
- 17 were at lower Khobi River on 15 February;
- small flock of three + four solitary were at Rioni River between Vani and Vartsikhe reservoir on 15 February;
- single was at Vartsikhe reservoir on 16 February;
- two were at Jandary Lake on 17 February;
- 2 were at Khanchali Lake on 3 June;
- 3 were at Saghamo Lake on 7 August;
- 2 were at Madatapa Lake on 30 August.

Mediterranean Shearwater (Puffinus yelkowan) [KHMELTHASHUA ZGHVIS QARISHKHALA]
Rare but regular winter visitor in coastal waters. Dates of presence: November - March. The Manx Shearwater is usually observed as single specimens, rarely by two or three individuals.
- flock of three + four solitary were recorded during observations on 11-14 February at Black Sea coast between Turkish border and Rioni River mouth.

White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) [VARDISPHERI VARKHVI]
Very rare occasional winter visitor in western part of country. Several records of single birds or pairs were registered during last decade along the sea coast.
- single was presented during several days in the end of January at Paleostomi Lake. Vagrant;
- nine were observed from eastern bank of Khanchali Lake on 23 May;
- six + one individuals were at Khanchali Lake on 3 June;
- 14 were counted at Georgian part of Khanchali Lake at 9 August.

Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) [KHUTCHUTCHA VARKHVI]
Very rare occasional winter visitor at Kolkheti Lowland and along sea coast. Several tens records are known since 1950s. As non-breeding summer visitor recorded on lakes of Javakheti Upland (breeding is known at Turkish part of Khozapini Lake).
- ten were observed from eastern bank of Khanchali Lake, single was in northern corner of lake and three were directly at Turkish border on 23 May;
- min 12 individuals were at Khanchali Lake on 3 June;
- nine were at Khanchali Lake on 9 August;
- died was found at Khanchali Lake on 30 August.

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) [DIDI CHVAMA]
- three were in lower part of Didi Liakhvi River near Gori town, E Georgia on 22 January. Vagrant to area.
- at least of 711 were counted along Black Sea coast between Turkish border (in south) and Rioni River mouth (in north) on 12-14 February;
- 233+ were at Paleostomi Lake on 14 February;
- at least 160 were along banks of Rioni River between Poti and Samtredia and about 35 between Samtredia and Vani on 15 February;
- seven were at Vartsikhe reservoir on 16 February;
- 41+ were on 17 February and at least 125 on 21 February at Jandari Lake;
- around 30 were on 17 February and 44+ on 19 February at Kumisi Lake;
- 34 were at banks of Kura (Mtkvari) River between Tbilisi and Rustavi on 24 February;
- died was found on 8 March at Lisi Lake, NW environs of Tbilisi. Rare visitor to area.

Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) [MTSIRE CHVAMA ]
Rare in small numbers winterer.
- about 420 individuals in two flocks were at on 17 February, SE Georgia, directly at the Georgia-Azeri border);
- 32 were at Kumisi Lake on 19 February. Very rare, irregular winterer to site;
- around 250 were at Dalis reservoir, SE Georgia, on 28 February;
- solitary was at Jandari Lake on 2 June. A few of summer records;
- small flock of 12 birds was at Kumisi Lake on 29 November. Very rare, irregular winterer to site.

Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) [KARTSI GHKANCHA]
Uncommon on passage in Western Georgia. Rare passage migrant in eastern parts of country. Usually, it migrates by small flocks of 5 - 10 individuals, rarely more - up to 20 - 25. Dates: April; end of August - mid-October. According to data, collected during 1980-90s, this Heron rare recorded on Kolkheti Lowland in summer, as non-breeding visitor.
- 22 were at Narionali Lakes on 31 August. High number and early autumn record.

Great White Egret (Egretta alba) [DIDI THETHRI QHANCHA]
Rare to uncommon on passage. Uncommon, locally common winter visitor. Usually winters on wet fields along drainage (meliorative) channels, along banks of rivers and lakes, overgrown by reed. Occurs one by one, by pairs or small flocks up to 10 birds. Sometimes forms great flocks - up to 50 specimens. In Georgia appear since the mid-November, departure at the end of March
- 1st week of April.
- 38 individuals were counted at Jandari Lake on 17 February. High concentration to area.
- single was at Lisi lake on 25 October. Rare visitor to area.
- at least 21 were on 4 November at banks of Kura River lower Rustavi town. High numbers.

Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) [MTSIRE THETHRI QHANCHA]
Rare but regular passage, winter and summer non-breeding visitor.
- 15 were at Jandari Lake on 2 June;
- single was on 3 June at Khanchali Lake;
- four individuals were on 7 August at Vartsikhe reservoir;
- single was at Shaori reservoir on 16 August;
Rare summer non-breeding visitor to areas.

Scuacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides) [GHKVITHELI GHKANCHA]
Common passage migrant. Occurs along Black Sea coast, on the lowland marshes and large lakes of western areas with rich vegetation. It is sighting seldom in Eastern Georgia. Very rare occurs as summer non-breeding visitor.
- about ten at Jandari Lake on 2 June. Rare summer non-breeding visitor;
- single at Vartsikhe reservoir on 23 August. Vagrant to area;
- 15+ at Narionali Lake on 31 August. Early autumn record.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) [EGVIPTURI TZERO]
Rare to uncommon on autumn passage and scarce on spring passage in Western Georgia. Very rare passage visitor in Eastern Georgia. Prefers marshes and lakes on lowlands.
- three (two+one) were in industrial zone of Rustavi town on 31 May;
- about ten were at Jandari Lake on 2 June;
- seven were observed at Nadarbazevi Lake on 11 June. Vagrant.
- two were at Lisi Lake on 4 August;
- single was at small pond in Krtsanisi dendrological park on 12 August.

Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) [GHAMIS GHKANCHA]
Rare to uncommon migratory breeder at wetlands on lowlands (lakes, rivers with dense shrubs and trees on banks). More common in East. No data on numbers and population trends.
- four were at Vartsikhe reservoir on 26 March. Rare passage visitor to area and very early spring record;
- two individuals were at Paravani Lake near Poka village on 4 June. New and unusual location.

Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) [IVEOSI]
Regular but scarce passage visitor to Western Georgia (Black Sea basin). More common on autumn passage along Black Sea coast. Rarely recorded in Eastern Georgia. Occurs in different wetlands with extensive reed beds, brushwood and separate trees on shores.
- 13 individuals were observed on 1 April at Kumisi Lake, Eastern Georgia. First recent record to area and very rare passage visitor to Eastern Georgia.
- two were on 2 October in Chorokhi River mouth in Ajaria, SW Georgia

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) [SISINA GEDI]
Very rare irregular winterer at wetlands of Western Georgia and occasional visitor in other parts of country. More common in winter along Black Sea coast (for more details see Abuladze, Eligulashvili, 1990).
- single was in mixed flock of ducks at Paleostomi Lake on 14 February;
- three were at Black Sea coast near Poti on 14 February.

Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) [MQHIVANI GEDI]
Rare winter visitor and passage migrant at wetlands of Western Georgia and occasional visitor in other parts of country. More common in winter along Black Sea coast (for more details see Abuladze, Eligulashvili, 1990).
- three were in mixed flock of ducks on 14 February at Paleostomi Lake.

White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) [THETHRSHUBLA BATI]
Uncommon winter visitor along sea coast and on coastal lakes. Dates of presence: 2nd half of October - beginning of March. Usually small flocks of 5-10 individuals are presented along sea coast and at coastal lowlands and Kolkhida Lowland, rarely at inland waters. More common during severe winters.
- flock of twenty-seven individuals was observed on 15 February at wet meadows in lower Khobi River valley;
- single was at Jandari Lake on 17 February;
- single was at Dalis reservoir on 28 February;
- two were noted at NW bank of Shaori reservoir near Kharisthvala village on 7 November. Birds were observed together with nine Mallards. A new site for the species.

Greylag Goose (Anser anser) [RUKHI BATI]
- three were on 28 February at Dalis reservoir, 26 km SW of the town of Dedoplis-Tskaro, SE Georgia;
- single at Jandari Lake on 23 October;
- six at Saghamo Lake on 4 November.

Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) [TZITHELI IKHVI]
Rare breeder. Regular, but in small numbers, passage and winter visitor. More often recorded in SE areas from the end of October to 1st decade of March, rarely later.
- four were in mixed flock of ducks (around 70 ind.) on 28 February at Dalis reservoir;
- single was on 3 March at Tbilisi reservoir;
- two were at on 11 March at small lake near Dedophlis Tzkaro, SE Georgia;
- four + two on 1 June and one pair on 2 June were recorded in Dadid Gareja, SE Georgia;
- c. 5 were at lakes Saghamo and Khanchali on 3 June;
- single was at Tsalka reservoir on 4 June;
- six were at Madatapa Lake on 22 August;
- single was on 23 August at Saghamo Lake;
- three were on 26 August at Tsalka reservoir;
- single was on 16 September in field near Bashkoi Lake, Tsalka district;
- three were at small salt lake Jiqurebistba in Udabno
on 6 November;
- four were on 1 December at Jandari Lake.

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) [AMLAKI IKHVI]
Rare passage and winter visitor.
- eight + three were observed on 14 February at Paleostomi Lake.

Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) [BOLOSADGISA IKHVI]
Rare passage and winter visitor, more often recorded at sea coast and coastlands.
- two were at mouth of Rioni River on 13 February in mixed flock of ducks.

Marbled Duck (Marmaronetta angustirostris) [VITZRONISKARTA IKHVINJA]
- singe at Kumisi Lake on 21 September.

Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) [TZITHELNISKARTA IKHVI]
In general rare, but locally uncommon, breeder, passage and winter visitor.
- single was on 13 February at Khidmaghala fish-pond, W Georgia;
- two were on 15 February at Narionali lakes, W Georgia;
- five were at Kumisi Lake on 19 February, E Georgia;
- three were at Dalis reservoir, SE Georgia, on 28 February.

Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) [TZITHELTHAVA GKVINTHIA]
Local breeder in small numbers on the lakes of Southern Georgia, at the Javakheti Upland, along borders with Armenia and Turkey. Regular uncommon passage migrant and winterer.
- 142+ were counted at Western Kolkhida on 13-15 February. Around 4/5 were at Paleostomi Lake;
- 12 were at Jandari Lake on 17 February;
- 3 at Kumisi Lake on 19 February;
- 9 were at Dalis reservoir, SE Georgia, on 28 February;
- single at Tsalka reservoir on 7 August;
- at least 22 at Khanchali Lake on 23 August;
- three at Kumisi Lake on 21 September;
- 17+ at Saghamo Lake on 4 November.

Ferruginous Pochard (Aythia nyroca) [THETHRTHVALA QHVINTHIA]
- four was at Imnati Lake, Paleostomi Lake basin, on 14 February;
- ten were at Narionali Lake on 15 February.
- single was at Kumisi Lake on 19 February.

Scaup (Aythia marila) [ZGHVIS GHKVINTHIA]
- three were on 11 February in mixed flock of grebes and ducks (around 60 ind.) at Black Sea near Sarpi village, 1 km from Turkish border. Rare winter visitor to area.

Velvet Scooter (Melanita fusca) [SHAVI GARIELI]
- eight individuals were at Saghamo Lake on 3 June;
- single at Khanchali Lake on 3 June;
- ten at Madatapa Lake on 30 August;
- seven on 17 September and about 25 on 18 September at Bashkei Lake in Tsalka district.

Smew (Mergellus albellus)
Rare to uncommon passage visitor and winterer. More common in western areas, especially along Black Sea coast, rarely recorded in East.
- four were at lakes Paleostomi Lake basin (Paleostomi, Patara Paleostomi, Imnati lakes, Maltakva River, Pichori River and canals) on 14 February;
- nine were at Kumisi Lake on 19 February;
- two were at Dalis reservoir, SE Georgia, on 28 February;
- single was watched on 29 October at Lisi Lake, NW environs of Tbilisi among 16 Mallards. Occasional visitor (third known record since 1970''s) to site;
- six were at Tbilisi reservoir on 16 November.

Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) [CHVEULEBRIVI BOLOQARQAZI = (KRAZANATCHAMIA) = {IRAO}]
Uncommon migratory breeder and very common passage migrant across country.
- pair and young bird several times were recorded in the end of July near locality Tzkalthashua,
Khanistzkali River valley, Baghdathi district, W Georgia. New breeding site;
- flock of about 40 individuals was watched on 26 August near Lanchkhuti town, Guria region, W Georgia. Very early autumn passage;
- 511+ were counted during three hours (14.10-17.25) on 7 September at Kobuleti lowland in Ajaria, SW Georgia. Considerable numbers.
- single was watched on 25 October near Khelvachauri, Ajaria, SW Georgia. Unusual late autumn record.

Black Kite (Milvus migrans) [DZERA]
Common year-round resident, passage migrant and winter visitor to Georgia.
- four communal roosting-sites were found along left bank (155-160, 84+, 27+ and 22 ind.) and one at right bank (about 65 ind.) of Rioni River between settlements Vani and Samtredia, Western Georgia;
- 1248+ individuals were counted in middle of February 2004 within the limits of Georgia:
1211+ were in western areas, i.e. in Black Sea basin, and 37 individuals were counted in Eastern Georgia, i.e. in Caspian Sea basin.

White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) [PHSOVI]
Formerly rare breeder on Kolkhida Lowland and in flood-lands of large rivers of East. Extirpated as a regular breeder in 1950''s (Abuladze, Eligulashvili, 1996). In the middle of 1990''s again become to nest at Kolkhida Lowland and in several sites of SE. At present estimated 2-3 pairs, probably a little more. Rare passage and winter visitor.
- 16 individuals were counted during winter survey in February 2004:
14 were in Western Georgia (11 in Paleostomi Lake basin, single adult in Chorokhi River mouth and two adults at Rioni River bank lower Kutaisi) and two individuals were recorded in Eastern Georgia during mid-winter counts (one immature at Jandari Lake and one adult at Kura River bank near border with Azerbaijan);
- single adult was observed at Vartsikhe reservoir on 2 December;
- one adult and one immature were recorded at Jandari Lake on 12 December;
- three, two adults and one immature, were on 17 December at Kura (Mtkvari) River in Gardabani forest-game reserve.

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) [PHASKUNJI]
Uncommon migratory breeder in eastern areas and rare in Western Georgia. Most common vulture during the breeding season. Very rare to rare on passage. Distributed along the southern slopes of Main Caucasian Range and its spurs, at the Likhi Ridge, Iori Table-land, Tsiv-Gombori Ridge, along valleys of large rivers in Eastern Georgia. Occurs in open, arid
areas in upland, foothill, low and mid-mountain belts. Georgian population estimated at ca. 150 breeding pairs.
- died was found on 18 April at bank of Kvirila River, Western Georgia. Unusual location.

Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) [SVAVI]
Fairly rare year-round resident.
- three birds were recorded during 2nd half of February (two on 20 February near Sighnaghi and
solitary on 26 February near Mirzaani). A few of recent records to areas.

Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) [VELIS BOLOBETCHEDA = (VELIS DZELQORI)]
Rare passage migrant. Very rare irregular (occasional) winter visitor and non-breeding summer visitor.
- single adult male was watched on 25 February near Kasristzkali, Dedophlistzkaro district, SE edge of Iori Table-land, SE Georgia.

Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus) [PHEKHBANJGHVLIANI KAKACHA]
Irregular uncommon winter visitor. Occurs mainly in open landscapes of Eastern Georgia, at plains, lowlands, semi-deserts, rarely at Kolkhida Lowland and along sea coast. Vagrant to mountain areas (for more details see Abuladze, 2003).
- two solitary were observed in February: one on 16 February near Khashuri town, E Georgia and one on 20 February in central part of Iori table-land.

Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) [MQHIVANI ARTZIVI]
Very rare transit migrant across country. A little more common on passage along Black Sea coast, especially in autumn (Abuladze, 1984). The spring transit takes place mainly in end of March C first week of April, the autumn transit starts in the middle of August with the peak in the end of September. Occasional winter visitor to lowlands of Western Georgia.
- single was recorded on 14 February near southern bank of Paleostomi Lake;
- single was observed at left bank of Khobi River (2 km from mouth) on 15 February.
4th and 5th (or 5th and 6th) winter records to Georgia. All previous records were at western part of Kolkhida Lowland: in January 1987 (two single individuals in Gali district and in Rioni River
valley lower Samtredia) and in January 1991 (one individual was at bank of Pichori River, Paleostomi Lake basin). According to communication of specialists from Georgian Center for the Conservation of Wildlife, this species was noted at Kolkhida Lowland in winter 2003/2004.

Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) [BEGOBIS ARTZIVI]
Rare year-round resident, passage migrant and winter visitor.
- 21 were counted during winter survey of raptors in the 2nd half of February (two in W Georgia and nineteen in E Georgia).

Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) [VELIS ARTZIVI]
Uncommon passage migrant and occasional (irregular in small numbers) winterer and summer visitor without breeding.
- two solitary were watched during raptors'' winter survey between 12 and 26 February 2004. One was on 20 February near Iormughanlo (NE part of Iori Table-land), second - on 25 February near Kasristzkali, Dedophlistzkaro district, SE part of Iori Table-land, SE Georgia.
Sporadic irregular winter visitor, recorded mainly in semi-deserts of SE Georgia. Probably these birds were very early spring passage migrants.

Booted Eagle (Hieraeetus pennatus) [CHIA ARTZIVI]
Scarce migratory summer breeder and passage visitor to Georgia. Occurs in mixed and deciduous forests with clearings, commonly at slopes of in low mountains at the height of 250-1200m a.s.l. Uncommon passage visitor across country.
- at least 16 migrating Booted Eagles were observed during four hours (10.30-14.30) at Kura (Mtkvari) River mouth in western environs of Gori town on 28 September. High number.

Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) [VELIS KIRKITA]
Formerly common breeder; at present rare passage visitor in small numbers. Extirpated as a regular breeder in the middle of 1990''s.
- at least 21 migrating Lesser Kestrels were observed during autumn passage between 12 and 21 September in Kura (Mtkvari) River valley in environs of Gori town.
Considerable number.

Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) [BARI = (GAVAZI)]
- seven single individuals were counted during raptors'' winter survey between 11 and 28 February 2004.
Six out of seven sightings were in SE Georgia. Only one record was in Western Georgia - near Ajameti Nature Reserve in the environs of Dimi village at Kutaisi - Baghdathi road on 15 February 2004.
Occasional passage and winter visitor to area.

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) [SHEVARDENI]
Very rare year-round resident.
- nine individuals were counted during winter survey of raptors in the 2nd half of February (two in W Georgia and seven in E Georgia);
- single was observed on 30 October in central part of Rustavi town;
- single was observed on 22 November at Lisi Lake in environs of Tbilisi;
- single was observed on 28 November in Vake district of Tbilisi;
- single was observed on 2 December in Liakhvi River mouth in Gori towni;
Very rare visitor to areas.

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) [SHAKI]
Formerly a local breeder in small numbers at coastal lowlands, in wetlands of western part of Kolkhida Lowland and in some large rivers'' valleys. Extinct as
a regular breeding species in Georgia in the middle of 20th Century. No nests known since 1950''s. Widespread but very rare to rare on passage across country. More often recorded on autumn passage along Black Sea coast (Abuladze, 1985). Very rare irregular winterer.
Including in the first edition of the Red Data Book of the Georgia (1982).
- solitary was observed on 13 February at Black Sea coast in Maltakva River mouth, near Paleostomi Lake, W Georgia. Third winter record since January 1991.

Common Grus (Grus grus) [RUKHI TZERO]
Very rare summer breeder at wet meadows in eastern part of Lesser Caucasus and common passage visitor.
- two flocks (41 and 24 ind.) were recorded near northern bank of Tsalka reservoir on 21 March.
Very early spring observation.
- three flocks (46+, 34 and 31 ind.) were observed near Kumisi Lake on 1 April.
High concentration to area.

Demoiselle Crane (Anthropoides virgo) [TZEROTHURPHA]
Passage visitor to open dry landscapes of Eastern Georgia. Across Georgia migrates in spring about 2500 and in autumn about 3500 Demoiselle Cranes (Abuladze, 1995).
- died was found on 4 April in Prone River valley near Abisi village, Agara district, Eastern Georgia. New, earlier unknown, location.
- two large flocks (118+ and around 70) and five small flocks comprising ca.130+ individuals in total, were observed on 24 September in dry fields at left side of Khrami River valley 2 km E of Shulaveri, Marneuli district, Eastern Georgia.

Baillon''s Crake (Porzana pusilla) [PATZATZINA QATHAMURA]
Status largely unknown. Rare on passage across Georgia. Probably more common than records suggest. According to some old publications (Chkhikvishvil, 1949; Kutubidze, 1985) rare breeder. A few of information.
- single was bagged by local hunter on 29 August at wet meadow near Tikhauri village, Ozurgethi district, Guria region, SW Georgia.

Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) [ZGHVIS KATCHKATCHI]
Rare, locally uncommon, passage visitor and rare summer non-breeding visitor to Georgia. Probably occasional migratory breeder at banks of large rivers in SE areas.
- two single were at Tsalka reservoir on 1 August;
- three + single were on 23 August at bank of Kura (Mtkvari) River in Ponichala, lower Tbilisi, E
Georgia. A few of records to areas.

Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) [CHVEULEBRIVI OCHOPEKHA]
Rare passage visitor and rare irregular migratory summer breeder in small numbers.
- 16 individuals (at least seven were juvenile birds) were observed on 7 July at the bank of saltish lake Jiqurebistba in Udabno semidesert, western part of Iori Table-land, Sagarejo district, SE Georgia. A few of summer records.

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) [PRANTZIA]
- two flocks (11 and at 40+) were recorded at flooded fields at Paleostomi Lake basin on 14 February. Irregular winterer to Georgia.

Grey Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) [TULESI]
Regular but rare passage migrant. Probably occasional winter visitor at Black sea coast (Kutubidze, 1985).
- three were on 11 May 2004 at left bank of Kura River near Gomi, Eastern Georgia.
A few of inland records, first record to area.

Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) [DIDI LIA]
Year-round visitor. Rare to uncommon, more common at coastal lowlands during autumn passage in the end of August - September. Small numbers are found in summer at wetlands of Kolkhida Lowland and Javakheti Upland, but no evidence of nesting has been documented.
Prefers mud-flats at the edge of natural or man-made lakes, reservoirs, ponds and canals.
- two solitary individuals were recorded on 14 February at wet meadows in Paleostomi Lake basin;
- single was on 15 february of Narionali fish-pond;
- four were noted on 9 May at Jandari Lake. A few of records to area;
- single was on 3 June at Saghamo Lake;
- single was at Tsalka reservoir on 7 August;
- three were at Khanchali Lake on 9 August;
- single was at wet meadow at bank of Ktsia River near Tsalka reservoir on 28 September.

Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) [MTSIRE LIA]
Rare passage visitor. Occurs at coastal lowlands, rarely at inland waters. Prefers mud-flats at the edge of natural and man-made lakes, reservoirs, ponds and canals.
- four were noted on 9 May at Jandari Lake. A few of records to area.

Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) [DIDI KRONSHNEPI]
- single was on 11 February at muddy shoreline in Chorokhi River mouth;
- two solitary were at Narionali lakes on 15 February.
A few of winter records.

Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) [MERUE]
Rare, in some years uncommon, passage migrant. Most of records are at wetlands with muddy shorelines and at wet meadows.
- at least twenty-seven were on 11 September at Japana fish-pond, Khobi distrtict, W Georgia.
Very high concentration, probably the highgest to Georgia.
- eight + three were on 28 September at Tsalka reservoir. A few of recent records to area.

Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) [CHAOBIS TCHOVILO]
Uncommon passage visitor. Occasional summer visitor without breeding. Prefers muddy shorelines of lakes and ponds, rarely recorded at sea coast, marshes, flooded meadows.
- at least six were recorded in mixed flock of waders on 7 April at Supsa fish-pond;
- single was on 3 June at Khanchali Lake;
- three + single were on 12 August at Madatapa Lake;
- single was on 28 August at bank of Ktsia River near Tsalka reservoir.

Dunlin (Calidris alpina) [SHAVCHICHAKHVA MEQVISHIA]
Rare to uncommon on passage. More common in Western Georgia, occasional visitor at inland wetlands. Usually is sighting in mixed flocks together with other waders in halting sites on the Black Sea coast.
- single was on 13 February at Khidmaghala fish-pond, Supsa, W Georgia. A few of winter records.

Arctic Jaeger = Arctic Skua (Stercorarius parasiticus) [MOKLEKUDA MEZGHVIA]
Vagrant to Georgia. More often recorded in winter at Black Sea coast, occasionally in inland areas. For analysis of skua records in the Caucasian coastal waters, see Abuladze (1998).
- a dark-phase adult individual was at Khanchali Lake on 3 June. Vagrant. Second record to area.

Pomarine Jaeger = Pomarine Skua (Stercorarius pomarinus) [SASHUALO MEZGHVIA]
Vagrant (or very rare winter visitor) to Georgia. For analysis of skua records in the Caucasian coastal waters, see Abuladze (1998).
- three single individuals were counted on 11-15 February at Black Sea coasts section between Turkish border and Rioni River mouth;
- single was observed sitting with a flock of Yellow-legged Gulls on 2 December in port of Batumi.

Yellow-legged Gull (Larus cacchinans) [QHVITHELPHEKHA THOLIA]
Rare to uncommon breeder at coastlands and common nomadic species in whole of country. Nests by small colonies in some points along Black Sea coast C at Paleostomi Lake (Abuladze, Eligulashvili, 1988), in Chorokhi River mouth and at some wetlands of Western Kolkhida. Number of breeding pairs fluctuated between 50 and 120 (data for 1980s-90s). Very common winter visitor.
- single (in adult plumage) was observed on 17 May at right side of Terek River valley lower Sioni village, Kazbegi district, N Georgia at 1800 m a.s.l. Unusual location, first record to area.

Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus) [SOMKHURI THOLIA]
Rare irregular breeder at some wetlands of Javakheti Upland and common year-round visitor without breeding in Eastern Georgia, especially in Kura River valley. Rare winter to wetlands of Western Georgia. Vagrant to other areas.
- three flocks, totally ca.160, were at Rioni River lower Vartsikhe reservoir, W Georgia, on 14 February. High concentration to area.

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) [VERTSKHLISPHERI THOLIA]
Vagrant to Georgia. All records were at Black Sea coast or coastal lowlands.
- two individuals (one in adult plumage and one young, probably 1st winter bird, were watched sitting with a flock of 60-70 Yellow-legged and 25-30 Common Black-headed gulls in port of Batumi on 12 February.
- single young bird was observed on 21 February in Kintrishi River mouth, south of Kobuleti, Black sea coast, Ajaria, W Georgia.

Great Black-headed Gull (Larus ichthyaetus) [KHARKHARA THOLIA]
Rare in small numbers but regular winter visitor, especially on Black Sea coast and on some large lakes and large rivers valleys in Black Sea basin. Rarely recorded in Kura (Mtkvari) River Valley from Khashuri town to border with Azerbaijan. Vagrant to other areas. Dates of presence in Georgia: middle of November - 1st decade of March.
- six individuals were counted at western part of Kolkhida Lowland and along Black Sea coast between Turkish border and Rioni River mouth on 11-15 February. The largest concentration was at sea coast near Paleostomi Lake on 14 February, when four birds were recorded. Additionally, single was at Japana fish-pond and single was at Kvirila River on 16 February.
- 32 were counted in Eastern Georgia: three solitary were noted during four hours observations on 11 February at Kura (Mtkvari) River near Uphlistsikhe, lower Gori, 18 were at Jandari Lake on 17 February, two were at Kumisi Lake and three were at Kura (Mtkvari) River in Gardabani forest-game reserve at the same day, three were at northern bank of Kumisi Lake on 19 February, single was on 24 February at lake near Dedophlistzkaro, SE Georgia, two were at Dalis reservoir on 28 February.
- two single were observed on 11 March at bank of Rioni River in Vani, Western Georgia.
Very late record of wintering birds.
- at least ten were on 7 December and seven on 8 December at Jandari Lake;
- two solitary were recorded at bank of Kura River in Gori on 20 December.

Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus) [SHAVTHAVA THOLIA]
Rare winter visitor in small numbers to Western Georgia, vagrant to eastern areas.
At least twenty-seven individuals were counted in Georgia during winter survey on 11-15 February 2004
- twenty-one in Western Georgia, i.e. in Black sea basin and six in Eastern Georgia, i.e. in Caspian Sea basin:
- three were at Black Sea coast near Chorokhi River mouth, two were in port of Batumi, three were at coastal lowland between Batumi and Poti, eight were in Paleostomi, Patara Paleostomi, Imnati lakes and wetlands around Paleostomi area, two were at Supsa fish-ponds, two - at Narionali lakes and single was in Rioni River valley near Samtredia.
- four, out of six records in Eastern Georgia, were at Jandari Lake on 17 February. One bird was observed at Kumisi Lake on 19 February and one was on 20 February in Kura (Mtkvari) River lower Rustavi town.

Slender-billed Gull (Larus genei) {TZVRILNISKARTA THOLIA]
- only two individuals were watched during winter survey in Georgia during second half of February 2004, Birds were recorded at Paleostomi Lake on 14 February.

Little Gull (Larus minutus) [MTSIRE THOLIA]
Uncommon passage and winter visitor. Occasionally occurs in summer.
- three immature individuals were recorded on 3 June at Khanchali Lake. A few of summer records.

Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) [TCHRELNISKARTA METHOVLIA]
Rare to uncommon on passage across Georgia. More often recorded along Black Sea coast. Probably scarce irregular breeder.
- single was at Jandary Lake on 2 June.

Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) [MDINARIS METHOVLIA]
- 5 on 3 June at Saghamo Lake and ca.15 on 4 June at Paravani Lake and Tsalka reservoir on 4 June;
- min 20 were on 25 September at Khidmaghala fish-pond, W Georgia;
- around 50 were on 28 September along northern bank of Tsalka reservoir;
- two were at Lisi Lake on 30 October. Rare visitor to area and late autumn record.

Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) [MTSIRE METHOVLIA]
- ca. 10 individuals were on 2 June at Jandari Lake. Rare summer visitor to area;
- single was on 16 June at Tbilisi reservoir. Occasional visitor to area;
- single was at Sioni reservoir, E Georgia, on 7 August. Occasional visitor to area;
- nine were at small coastal lake in Batumi on 23 September;
- min 25 at Khidmaghala fish-pond and min 40 at Narionali lake were on 25 September;

Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) [LOGHKATHETHRI THEVZIGHKLAPIA]
Uncommon irregular migratory breeder at some lakes of Eastern Georgia and common passage migrant.
- at least 40 were observed on 21 September in Kintrishi River mouth, south of Kobuleti, Black sea coast, Ajaria, W Georgia. High concentration.

White-winged Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) [PHRTHATHETHRI THEVZIGHKLAPIA]
Migratory breeder in small numbers at some wetlands in eastern part of Lesser Caucasus, Eastern Georgia. Common and widespread passage migrant.
- single was on 1 May at Lisi Lake, NW environs of Tbilisi. Occasional visitor to area;
- three were on 16 May at Nadarbazevi Lake, Gori district, E Georgia. Occasional visitor to area;
- min 20 were at Tsalka reservoir on 4 June;
- died was found on 7 September at bank of Zhinvali reservoir, Dusheti district, E Georgia. Unusual location, first record to area;
- around 40 were at Kumisi Lake on 14 September. High concentration to area;
- 22 on 25 September and 54+ on 26 September were at Khidmaghala fish-pond, W Georgia. Large flocks;

Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) [ZARNASHO]
Rare year-round resident.
- several observations of solitary individuals were during January-February in- and around of resort of Manglisi and in Algeti River gorge lower Manglisi, Tetri Tzgkaro district, E Georgia.
First recent record to area.

Common Swift (Apus apus) [NAMGALA]
Very common and numerous migratory summer breeder and passage migrant.
- the last autumn observation of small flock (ca. 10-12 ind.) was on 2 October in Tbilisi.
Very late autumn record.

Green Woodpecker (Picus viridis) [MTZVANE KODALA]
Scarce resident with wide movements outside breeding season. More common in eastern and central parts of Georgia (up to 5000 pairs), very rare in West. Prefers open dry areas with scattered trees, light deciduous woods, old gardens and parks. Outside breeding season
widely nomads. During last decades marked moderate decrease in some areas.
- solitary was watched on 25 March at the territory of Tbilisi ZOO. Occasional visitor to urban areas.

Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola) [MOKVITHALO BOLOQANQARA]
- seven adult (five males and two females) were at Saghamo Lake on 3 June;
- at least 12 adult and young birds were recorded at small lake near Diliska village in the environs of Ahalqalaqi town on 7 July;
- three single at Tsalka reservoir near Poka village on 1 August.

Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) [MENAPIRE MERTSKHALI]
Widespread and quite common summer breeder and passage migrant in suitable habitats. Nests colonially by several hundred pairs in holes in banks of rivers. No
data on numbers and population trends.
- several small flocks (totally ca. up to 120 ind.) vere observed in Kura (Mtkvari) River valley between Tbilisi and Mtskheta town on 1 October and in Gori town on 3 October.
Very late autumn observation.

Redwing (Turdus iliacus) [CHICHKHINAKI]
Irregular and rare winter visitor. Occasionally seen in flocks of Fieldfare.
- small groups (5-10 individuals) were recorded nine times in February. Seven records were in Western Georgia and two in Eastern Georgia.

Rafous-tailed Scrub-robin (Cercotrichas galactotes) [ZHGHALI BULBULA]
Very rare breeder in south-eastern part of country - at the Iori Table-land (Sikharulidze, 1974; Kutubidze, 1985, Zhordania, 1999). Modern data on the distribution, numbers and biology is very scant.
- solitary was recoded on 25 July at Yaghluja ridge, Eastern Georgia.
New, earlier unknown, location.

Guldenstadt''s Redstart (Phoenicurus erythrogaster) [TZITHELMUTSELA BOLOTSETKHLA]
In general rare, locally uncommon year-round resident with vertical seaonal movements. During breeding season occurs only in the most upper altitude belt of Main Caucasian Range and its southern spurs at central and eastern parts of Great Caucasus. Breeding habitats are located in the alpine and sub-nival belts at narrow, dark gorges with glaciers, rocky plots of steep slopes, alpine meadows. From middle of October to middle of March goes down to river valleys and
occurs in thickets of sea-buckthorn, other berry species. Species was included in the 1st edition of Red Data Book of Georgia (1983).
- two small flocks of 3 and 4 birds and three solitary individuals were recorded in Aragvi River near Zhinvali reservoir and two solitary near Pasanauri, Dusheti district, Eastern Georgia on 4 March. Vagrant or, probably, very rare in small numbers irregular winter visitor to area and late winter records for such altitude.
- three (atwo singing males and a female) were seen on 31 May on Mt.Kazbegi in the boulder fields below the snout of the Gergeti Glacier;
- seven individuals were noted on 23 August along edge of Gergrti glacier;
- three were on 3 October near border terminal in Zemo Larsi, Georgia-Russian border. Early autumn record for such altitude.

Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) [MOTSEKVAVE MEGHORGHIA]
Sporadic and unnumerous breeder in eastern areas. Rare (in Western Georgia) to uncommon (in Eastern Georgia) on passage. Breeds in dry open plots of mountain slopes and plateaus. A little of factual data.
- mixed groups of adults and juveniles (ca.40 ind.) were seen at the distance of about 3 km during 2 h ecursion on 7 July in David Gareji, SE Georgia. High density to area.

(Eastern) Black-eared Wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica) [SHAVAMLAGHKI MEGHORGHIA]
Uncommon, locally common, migratory breeder. More common in eastern areas. Occurs in dry, well getting thoroughly warmed slopes of hills and mountains with brushwood vegetation, rocks, screens. Rare to uncommon passage visitor in April and in October.
- a female was incubating four eggs on 14 April at Udabno Ridge, SE Georgia.
Very early observation, usually first full clutches were recorded in the end of April.

Bearded Tit = Bearded Reedling (Panurus biarmicus) [ULVASHS TZIVTZIVA]
Rare sporadic year-round resident. More common in south-eastern areas. Inhabits banks of shallow lakes with extensive reed-beds and other similar vegetation. Rarely recorded along banks of rivers, reservoirs, ponds. In winter widely nomads. No data on numbers and
population trends. Number in winter fluctuate, especially due to weather conditions. A few of factual information on breeding biology.
- min four were at Imnati Lake + single was at bank of Pichori River, 1 km from mouth, (Paleostomi Lake basin) on 14 February. Rare winterer to area;
- four were at Nadarbazevi Lake in Gori district on 16 January. Rare winterer to site;
- three were at canal near Jandari Lake and five at SW bank of Kumisi Lake on 17 February;
- at least ten were at northern bank of Kumisi Lake on 19 February;
- seven were on 24 February at lake near Dedophlistzkaro, SE Georgia;
- nine + six were in two sites at bank of Dalis reservoir on 28 February. High concentration;
- single was at small pond in Krtzanisi dendrological park on 7 March. Occasional visitor;
- at least five were on 25 November at Lisi Lake, NW environs of Tbilisi. Rare winterer;
- three were on 6 December at Jandari Lake.

Kruper''s Nuthatch (Sitta krueperi) [SHAVTHAVA TSOTSIA]
Rare, locally uncommon, resident. Species is an indicator of dark-coniferous forests. Occurs mainly in old fir-abies forests in NW parts of Georgia from sea level to tree limit, (perhaps 2000 m a.s.l.). Most common in middle-mountain belt; maximal its number in altitudinous belt 900-1600 a.s.l. In winter vertically migrates.
- single was in mixes flock of tits on 11 February in Sarpi village, Georgia-Turkish border; Ajaria;
- single was on 12 February at cemetery of Batumi town, Ajaria, SW Georgia;
- three individuals were recorded on 2 March during 3 h excursion in environs of resort of Abastumani, Meskheti Ridge, S Georgia;
- two solitary birds were on 7 March in Adigeni town, S Georgia;
Rare winter visitor to areas.

Western Rock Nuthatch (Sitta neumayer) [KLDIS SINEGOGA]
Resident breeder in arid rocky habitats on lowlands, table-lands, pre- and low-mountainin areas of Eastern Georgia. Vertical limits of species distribution C 250 - 800m a.s.l. During recent decades in some areas was marked slow decline.
- solitary birds were seen during January and February in the following sites: near David Gareji monastery, at Udabno and Kvernaki ridges, near Jvari church, in Vashlovani Nature Reserve;
- at least five pairs were counted during field works in the middle (11-17.06) of June at Kvernaki Ridge in Eastern Georgia.

Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) [TZITHELPHRTHIANI KLDETSOTSIA]
Resident breeder with local seasonal vertical movements.
- 1-3 individuals were regularly presented during December at rocks and ruins in the lower part of Liakhvi River valley in northern environs of Gori town. Rare winterer to area;
- three (two solitary on rocks in Dabakhanka River gorge near Okrokana village in environs of Tbilisi and one in Mtasminda park) were observed on 16 December. Rare winterer to area.

Eurasian Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus) [MOLAGHURI]
Widespread but not numerous migratory breeder. Uncommon passage visitor across Georgia.
- single was observed on 19 April at Georgia-Azerbaijan border near Tziteli Khidi (Red
Bridge in Georgian). Very early spring observation. Common dates of spring arrival are last days of April first week of May.
- at least 32 individuals in two flocks were watched on 22 April in lower Khrami River valley.
Considerable numbers for spring passage.

Yellow-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) [ALPURI MAGHRANI]
Common, in places numerous year-round resident bird species with seasonal vertical movements in subalpine and alpine belts. More common and numerous at Great Caucasus. Usually is occurred near rocks, screes, in sheepflocks concentration sites, near roads,
settlements, separate human constructions. Locally increased. Occasional visitor outside of areas of breeding distribution.
- ca.20 were recorded at southern slope of Meskheti Ridge at 1900 m a.s.l. (at Sairme-Abastumani road) on 24 September. Occasional visitor to area.

Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) [TZITHELNISKARTA MAGHRANI]
In general widespread but rare sporadic year-round resident bird species in highlands of Great and Lesser Caucasus. More common in eastern parts of Main Caucasian Range and it spurs. No data on total numbers. Continuous decrease during last three-four decades. In winter vertically migrates to lower areas. Usually recorded in flocks of Yellow-billed Chough.
- single was recorded at bank of Zhinvali reservoir near Ananuri village on 25 November.
Occasional visitor to area.

Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) [CHKA]
Common resident in eastern part of Lesser Caucasia. During breeding season recorded only in small settlements at the Javakheti Upland. Locally found in quite large numbers. Vertical limits of distribution - 1100 to 2500 m a.s.l. Vagrant for other areas. Nests in wall niches, under roofs, in attics, in church spires. No data on numbers; population is stable.
- single was observed in Abastumani town on 25 September. Occasional visitor.

Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus) [TARBI]
Irregular migratory breeder in south-eastern parts of country. Locally fairly common. Colonies from 50 to 1000 pairs were found in the artificial forest belts in south-eastern corner of country - at the Iori Table-land and in Shiraki and Eldari semi-deserts. Occasional visitor to western and southern areas.
- numerous large flocks (300-2000 ind.) were noted in the middle of September 1st week of October in Iori River valley, in- and around Rustavi town, at Udabno Ridge and at Gardabani lowland, SE Georgia. Irregular visitor.

Spanish Sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis) [SHAVGULA BEGHURA]
Occurs only in south-eastern parts of Georgia. Locally quite common and abundant migratory breeder. Rare to uncommon on passage in eastern areas. Vagrant to Western Georgia. Dates of presence: 3rd decade of March - end of September. Habitats: arid woodlands, shelter belts of poplar, acacia and apricot-tree along auto- and rail-roads, little settlements in south-eastern areas. Several tens colonies (from 20 to 2000 pairs in each) are known. Numbers fluctuate.
Since 1950s population increasing due to afforestation of arid areas in south-eastern part of country.
- two flocks (ca.50 ind.) were recorded near Mirzaani, Dedophlistzkaro district, SE Georgia on 7 October. Very late, probably the latest, autumn record.

Great Rosefinch (Carpodacus rubicilla) [DIDI KOCHOBA]
Rare and sporadic year-round resident. Occurs only at Main Caucasian Range and some its spurs. Typical species-indicator of sub-nival belt, where they are nesting at the heights of 3000-3500 m a.s.l., and feeding mainly in alpine and sub-alpine belts C in summer not lower 2500-2700 m, in winter - 1900-2000 m. In foothills they appear seldom, only in the most severest winters and under unfavorable feeding conditions (Loskot, 1991). Data about nesting in
highlands of Lesser Caucasus (Zhordania, 1962) are probably erroneous and are related to sightings of vagrant specimens. The mistake in identification is not excluded. Probably several hundred pairs nests in Georgia (Loskot, 1991).
- at least 11 birds were recorded in Kazbegi, Gergeti, Panshati (Great Caucasus, northern part of Eastern Georgia) on 27-30 May;
- four (a single male ansd a party of male and two females) were observed on 31 May on Mt.Kazbegi in the boulder fields below the snout of the Gergeti Glacier;
- nine (three adult males, two female and four juv.) on 2 July and seven (two males, two females and the juv.) on 3 July were in Gergeti;
- four single birds (one male, two females and one young) were recorded at gentle slope 0,5 km south of Kazbegi on 16 July;
- at least eight were observed during 40 minutes (11.10-11.50) on 1 October in Terek River valley, 1 km north of Zemo Lars, Kazbegi district (Georgia-Russian border),
- small flocks (3-10 birds) and solitary individuals (ca.120-130) were recorded on 6 December in
settlements and along Georgian Military high-way in Kazbegi district (Kazbegi, Gergeti, Sioni, Sno, Kobi, Arsha);
- about 20 were in- and around Gudauri resort, N Georgia, on 7-9 December; High concentration, caused probably by severe weather conditions.
- two single males on 6 December and at least 12 on 9 December were observed at bank of Aragvi River near Zemo Mletha village, Dusheti diatrict, N Georgia;
- single was recorded in Aragvi River Gorge near Pasanauri on 16 December.
Unusual location.


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