Interesting records 2003

1 January - 30 June

Red-throated Diver (Gavia stellata)
Rare irregular winter visitor along the whole length of the Georgian
section of the Black Sea coast.
- flock of five and two solitary individuals were seen on 14 January
2003 at Black sea coast near Choloki River mouth, Ajaria, SW
- one was in port of Batumi on 22 January;
- three were near Poti on 7 February.

Black-throated Diver (Gavia arctica)
Rare winter visitor to Black Sea coast. Occasionally recorded inland.
Two were recorded on 12 January at Vartsikhe reservoir, W Georgia.
A very rare inland occurence.

Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)
At least 42 individuals were counted at Vartsikhe reservoir on 12
January 2003.
The highest winter count for this site.

Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus)
143+ were counted on 11-12 January at Rioni River (between Vani and
Samtredia) and 25+ at Vartsikhe reservoir on 12 January.
Considerable numbers for this area.

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)
420+ were counted along Black Sea coast between Batumi, Ajaria, SW
Georgia and Poti town on 14 January 2003.
Not rare but interesting.

Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus)
Rare in small numbers winterer.
About 330 were on 18 January at Jandari Lake, E Georgia.

Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus)
Vagrant. The nearest site of breeding is southern, Turkish, part of
Khozapini Lake ["Aktas Golu" in Turkish language] (Yarar, M. 1995.
Aktas Golu: a new pelican breeding site on the Turkish-Georgian border. OSME Bulletin 35: 46-48).
Flock of about 35 individuals was observed on Madatapa Lake (2107 m
a.s.l.), Ninotsminda district, S Georgia on 24 May.
High concentration.

Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea)
Widespread and common passage and winter visitor all over lowlands of
country. In small numbers breed in some points in Western Georgia,
more seldom in eastern areas.
At least 35 wintering birds were in the mouth area of Chorokhi River
in end of February-1st decade of March. Species is a more-or-less
regular winter visitor in this area, but in small numbers (5-10
Not rare but interesting.

Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea)
Uncommon on passage in Western Georgia. Very rare passage migrant or
occasional visitor in eastern parts of country. Usually, it migrates
by small flocks of 5-10 birds, rarely more - up to 20-25. Dates
of passages: in spring - middle-end of April; in autumn - end of
August - middle of October.
Died was found in vineyard in Didvela village, Baghdadi district, W
Georgia on 19 April.
Unusual location.

Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)
Very rare breeding summer visitor in Eastern Georgia. In 1960-70''s
number dropped catastrophically owing to excessive use of pesticides
in agriculture and as result of sharp degradation of the Reptilia
populations. So, perhaps not more than 5 pairs were in 1970s, 5-10 in
the end of 1980''s, about 10 breeding pairs in the beginning of 1990s,
about 15 in the mid-1990s and 25-30 pairs in 2001-2003. At present
this species is more common at the Iori Table-land (about 15 pairs),
in Alazani River valley (3-4 pairs) and Kvernaki Ridge (2-3 pairs).
Widespread in small numbers passage visitor across Georgia. A roost
of four individuals was found on the early morning of 27 April in artificial plantation of pine near Chokhtauri, W Georgia.

Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus)
Rare in small numbers passage migrant. Occasional non-breeding summer
visitor. Occurs mainly in open habitats of Eastern Georgia, rarely at
Javakheti Upland - in semi-deserts, mountain steppes, table-lands.
Five single were counted on the evening (between 14.30 and 18.15) of
21 April in fields near Leghva village, Kobuleti district, Ajaria
Autonomous Rep., SW Georgia - 1 adult male and 4 females/immatures.
Considerable numbers for rare passage visitor.

Lewant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes)
Rare in small numbers migratory breeder and passage visitor.
- seven were counted during 2 hours on 23 April near Mukhestate
village, Kobuleti district, Ajaria, SW Georgia.
Remarkable numbers for rare migrating species;
- solitary was observed on 22 May at eastern slopes of Likhi Ridge
near Surami, Khashuri district
- pair and single birds several times were recorded in May - 1st half
of June near Armazi gorge, Mtskheta district, E Georgia.
A few of breeding records for Georgia.

Bonelli''s Eagle (Hieraeetus fasciatus)
Occasional breeder. Very few records for Georgia.
Two were recorded on the morning (10.10) of 22 April at bank of Choloki River near locality Tikeri, Kobuleti district, Ajaria, SW Georgia. Birds were observed during 1-1,5min with binocular 10x50 in good light conditions from a distance 50-150m.
First spring record of species at this passage route of birds of prey
- Black Sea eastern route.
Three other records were in autumn in NE Turkey: two solitary
individuals was counted in September 1978 and in September 1980
(unpublished data of A.Broom & P.Doherty and unpublished data of
P.Heathcote; in: Kok, M & J.P.Ongenae. Raptor migration in the
north-east of Turkey, September 1990. OSME Bulletin 34, Spring 1995:
8-11) and eight individuals were recorded between 24 September and 5
October 1994 in the vicinity of Borcka, NE Turkey (Mrlik, V. et. al.
1994. Raptor migration in north-east Turkey, autumn 1994. OSME
Bulletin 35, August 1995: 41-45).

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Formerly local breeder in small numbers along Black Sea coast, in
wetlands of western part of Kolkhida Lowland, at coastal lakes and in
some large rivers'' valleys. Extinct as a regular breeding species in
the middle of 20th Century. No nests known since 1958s. Last case of
breeding was documented in Abkhazia in 1958. Widespread but very rare
to rare on passage. More often recorded on autumn passage at Black
Sea coast. Very rare winterer.
Single was recorded on 14 January 2003 at right bank of Rioni River
lower Samtredia, W Georgia.
Second winter record since January 1991.

Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Widespread and common migratory breeder, passage migrant and
irregular in small numbers winterer.
One was observed on 1 March in Tsalka (1550 m a.s.l.), S Georgia,
Lesser Caucasus.
Very early spring record for this site.

White-tailed Plover (Chettusia leucura)
Single was observed at Madatapa Lake (2107 m a.s.l.), Ninotsminda
district, S Georgia on 24 May.

Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus)
Rare irregular breeder at some lakes of Javakheti Upland and
year-round visitor without breeding at Kura River valley, E Georgia.
Vagrant to other areas. It should be noticed that number of wintering
individuals in Eastern Georgia increased during last several years.
- at least four Armenian Gulls were recorded in flock of 30-35 Larus
cachinnans on 27 April at Rioni River bank lower Kutaisi, W Georgia.
This species is a vagrant (mainly in winter) in that area. First
spring record for this locality.
- at least 650 were counted along Kura (Mtkvari) River banks within
the central part of Tbilisi City on 3 February, about 470 on 22
February and 380+ on 1 March;
- from 25 to 160+ wintering birds were in January-February at the Kura River banks in Gori;
small flocks were in Khashuri;
- small flocks (2-5 ind.) and solitary individuals were recorded at
banks of Kura (Mtkvari) River lower Akhaltsikhe, in Borjomi Gorge and
between Akhaldaba village and Khashuri town on 17 March;

Common Swift (Apus apus)
Fairly widespread and very common summer breeder and passage visitor
in whole of country.
First spring observations of single birds and small flocks (5-10 or a
few more) were at Black Sea coastland near Batumi on 4 April, on 5
April in Kutaisi, on 8 April in Tbilisi, Rustavi and Gori.

Middle Spotted (Woodpecker) (Dendrocopos medius)
Formerly uncommon, but at present rare year-round resident.
Solitary was observed on 18 April in road-protective tree belt of
poplars at Tbilisi-Rustavi motor-road, E Georgia.
A few of recent records from this area.

Swallow (Hirundo rustica)
Widespread and very common summer breeder and passage visitor.
First small flocks (10-50) were recorded in Batumi on 4 April and in
Kutaisi, Tbilisi and Gori on 6 April.

Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria)
Rare sporadic resident of mountainous areas. A very rare visitor
outside breeding areas in winter. During breeding season inhabits
rocky habitats with precipices on mountain ridges above forest line,
in belt of alpine meadows between 1600 and 2500 m a.s.l., sometimes
up to snow line. Outside breeding season widely nomads, carries out
vertical movements to lower located areas (400-1000 m a.s.l.) and can
be recorded on lowlands and plains, more often on rocks, ruins, old
stone constructions, fences, walls of buildings. Total numbers and
population trends in Georgia is unknown.
Four were observed on 11 January at walls of Narikala fortress in
Tbilisi. Considerable numbers.
Solitary individuals were recorded in the following sites of Eastern
- in Kojori village on 28 January;
- in Gori town on 1 February;
- near Mtskheta at Jvari church on 2 March.

Guldenstadt''s Redstart (Phoenicurus erythrogaster)
Rare, locally uncommon year-round resident with some vertical local
movements. During nesting period occurs only in the most upper
altitude belt of Main Caucasian Ridge and its southern spurs at
central and eastern parts of Great Caucasia. Nests in the sub-nival
belt at narrow, dark gorges with glaciers, rocky plots of steep
slopes, alpine meadows. In winter goes down to river valleys, occurs
in thickets of sea-buckthorn, other berry species (October-March).
Six individuals, including two adult males, were recorded on 19 April
at motor-road near locality Upper Lars, Kazbegi district, N Georgia
(about 1600 m a.s.l.).
Very late spring record for this altitude.

Firecreast (Regulus ingicapillus)
In general rare, but locally common year-round resident. Sporadically
breeds in dark-coniferous forests of NW of country. Most common in
Abkhazia. Status is poorly known for Ajaria, breeding here needs in
confirmation. In winter widely nomads, appearing in coastal lowland,
in settlements.
Two solitary were in Makhinjauri village, 2 km from Batumi, Ajaria,
SW Georgia on 10 May.
A few of records and very late spring observation for area.

Kruper''s Nuthatch (Sitta krueperi)
Rare, locally uncommon, resident in dark-coniferous forests in NW and
SW Georgia from sea level to tree limit, (perhaps 2000 m a.s.l.).
Most common in middle-mountain belt; maximal its number in
altitudinous belt 900-1600 a.s.l. In winter vertically migrates.
One was observed during 3 minutes from a distance of 10-15m at
territory of Batumi Airport on 14 April.

Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)
Common resident in eastern part of Lesser Caucasia. During breeding
season recorded only in small settlements at the Javakheti Upland.
Locally found in quite large numbers. Vertical limits of distribution
- 1100 to 2500 m a.s.l. Vagrant for other areas.
Solitary birds were observed several times in flocks of wintering
Rooks C.frugilegus in and around Tbilisi in January - February.

Black-headed Bunting (Emberiza melanocephala)
Common summer breeder and passage visitor in eastern areas, rare in
West. Inhabits arid woodlands, scrub, farmland, gardens, vineyards,
etc. on plains, in semi-deserts, foothills and low mountains.
Vertically distributed up to 1000 m a.s.l., commonly up to 850 m.
Nest with unusual clutch consisting of six eggs was found in SW
environs of Tbilisi (locality Phonitchala) on 3 June. Nest was
located in bush of wild almond at height of 0,8 m (D=12 cm, H=7 cm,
d=6 cm). Normally size of full clutch is 4, rarely 5 eggs.

1 July - 31 December

Red-throated Loon {=Red-throated Diver} (Gavia stellata)
Irregular rare winter visitor on Black Sea coast and some large freshwater lakes on Kolkhida Lowland. Usually, it records by single individuals from middle of December to end of February, so observation of seven birds on 26 November along sea coast in Ajaria from locality Tsikhisdziri to Kintrishi River mouth at the distance of 2,5 km is significant.

Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus)
At least of 380 individuals were counted at Jandari Lake (41.24''N 45.12''E; 11.4 sq.km; 290m a.s.l), SE Georgia, directly at the Georgia-Azeri border) on 3 December.

Black Stork (Ciconia nigra)
Rare migratory breeder in Eastern Georgia. Present breeding population estimated 25-30 breeding pairs. Extinct as a regular breeder in some areas. Rare but regular passage visitor across country.
Since 1983 species was included in the 1st edition of Red Data Book of Georgia.
Two individuals were observed on 17 September near Vartsikhe reservoir, southern environs of Kutaisi, Western Georgia. Rare in small numbers passage visitor to site.

Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)
Is a regular but scarce passage visitor to Western Georgia (Black Sea basin). More common on autumn passage along Black Sea coast. Occurs in different wetlands with extensive reed beds, brushwood and separate trees on shores.
Observation of four individuals at Narionali Lake, near Gori town, Eastern Georgia may be considered as remarkable record.

Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)
Rare but regular passage visitor. More common at lakes, marsshe and ponds with reed beds and thickets on shores at lowlands of Western Georgia.
22+ birds were observed on 28 September at wet meadow and along land-reclamation canals near Patara Paleostomi Lake (0,5 km eastward), Western Georgia. A high count.

Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina)
Rare breeder on mountain lakes of Southern Georgia. Regular but rare on passage and in winter, mainly along sea coast, rarely on large lakes or reservoirs. In winter usually is sighting one by one, by pairs, seldom by small flocks - up to 10 individuals.
About 60 were at Tsalka reservoir, Tsalka district, Southern Georgia on 12 August. High concentration to site.

Smew (Mergus albellus)
Uncommon passage and winter visitor.
- three were at Lisi Lake, NW environs of Tbilisi on 23 October. Rare visitor to area.
- seventeen birds were counted in two mixed flocks of ducks at Jandari Lake (41.24''N 45.12''E; 11.4 sq.km; 290m a.s.l), SE Georgia, on 3 December. Considerable concentration.
- at least of 42 birds were counted in large (up to 500) mixed flock of ducks, mostly Mallrds at Tbilisi reservoir on 11 December. A very high count.

Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)
Rare year-round resident in highlands. Breeding range covers upper belt of montane forests and alpine meadows at the Main Caucasian Range, its spurs and most high rocky areas at the Lesser Caucasus. Vertical limits of breeding distribution are 1600-3000 m a.s.l. Nests in caves on precipice. Estimated about 25 breeding pairs. There were not essential changes in the numbers during recent decades. Including in the 1st edition of the National Red Data Book (1983).
Solitary sub-adult was recorded on 15 September at Zekari Ridge, Lesser Caucasus. Rare visitor to area.

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus)
Uncommon migratory breeder in eastern areas and rare in Western Georgia. Most common vulture during the breeding season. Very rare to rare on passage. Distributed along the southern slopes of Main Caucasian Range and its spurs, at the Likhi Ridge, Iori Table-land, Tsiv-Gombori Ridge, along valleys of large rivers in Eastern Georgia. Occurs in open, arid areas in upland, foothill, low and mid-mountain belts. Georgian population estimated at ca. 150 breeding pairs.
11 individuals, eight adults and three juv. were at the Udabno Ridge near David-Gareji on 30 September. An unusually high count.

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)
Rare year-round resident in mountain forests of the Great and Lesser Caucasus.
Two individuals were recorded lower resort Sairme on 11 September, one adult was observed at Zekari Pass on 15 September and one immature was recorded at southern slope of Zekari Ridge (at tree-line) on 12 September. Rare year-round resident to area Baghdathi district in Western Georgia.

Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus)
Occasional breeder or extremely rare year-round resident with local (regional) seasonal movements. Probably extirpated as breeding species. All known 13 records were registered in semi-deserts or arid low mountains in Eastern Georgia, mainly in SE eastern areas, located along borders with Azerbaijan and Armenia. The first three visual observations during breeding seasons were registered in the middle of 1980s. Pair with young was recorded in July 1988 near Vashlovani Nature Reserve at Azerbaijan-Georgian border (south-eastern part of country). At present probably 1 or 2 pairs breeds in arid areas of south-eastern parts of Georgia (for more detailed information on records in 1980s and 1990s see Abuladze, Eligulashvili, Rostiashvili, 1990; Abuladze, 1994; Abuladze, 1997). A little of factual information.
- single was observed during two min. on 23 September at Kobuleti Lowland in Ajaria, SW Georgia, thet is 14th recent record to Georgia, 6th record outside of breeding habitats and first record in Western Georgia (in Black Sea basin).

Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix)
Widespread and uncommon, locally common, summer breeder and passage visitor in whole of country. Inhabits open areas, including sub-alpine meadows up to 2300 m a.s.l.. For breeding prefers grasslands and open fields with cereal crops. The earliest sighting is registered on 30 March 1977, the latest one on 18 December 1992. Much numerous on autumn passage at coastlands from the end of August to 1st decade of October; less evident on spring passage. No total estimate for Georgia. Formerly common breeder, scarce and declining during recent decades. Number of passage birds dropped too. The most popular object of hunting in Georgia. Quail forms about 90% of all bagged birds, taken by local hunters.
- Solitary was recorded on 12 November in tea plantations near locality Tsikhisdziri, Ajaria, SW Georgia (Black Sea coastlands);
- three birds were bagged by local hunter on 15 November in Rioni River flood-land lower Samtredia, Western Georgia;
- one was seen in field in environs of Kobuleti, Ajaria, SW Georgia on 22 November;
- died was found in tea plantation near Khelvachauri village, Ajaria, SW Georgia on 29 November.
An unusually late autumn records.

Baillon''s Crake (Porzana pusilla)
Status largely unknown. Rare passage visitor or very rare breeder - according to some publications-Chkhikvishvil, 1949; Kutubidze, 1985. A few of information.
One was bagged by local hunter on 16 September in the western environs of Kutaisi, Western Georgia.

Common Grus (Grus grus)
Flock of seven individuals was observed at Zekari Ridge on 12 September. Occasional (or irregular in small numbers passage) visitor to area and very early autumn record.

Great Black-headed Gull (Larus ichthyaetus)
Rare but regular winter visitor, especially on Black Sea coast and on some large lakes and large rivers valleys in Black Sea basin. Rarely recorded in Kura (Mtkvari) River Valley from Khashuri town to border with Azerbaijan. Vagrant to other areas. Dates of presence in Georgia: middle of November - 1st decade of March.
- at least five were at Narionali lakes on 2 December;
- two were recorded at bank of Kura River in Mtskheta on 7 December;
- solitary was in port of Batumi, Ajaria, SW Georgia on 12 December;
- three were in flock of about 40 Yellow-legged Gulls at sea coast between Makhinjauri and Mtzvane Kontskhi, Ajaria, SW Georgia on 14 December;
- two solitary were recorded at 3 km of sea coast in Kobuleti, Ajaria, SW Georgia on 14 December;

Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus)
Regular but rare migrating and wintering species at Black Sea coast and some large lakes in Western Georgia. Occasional winter visitor to Eastern Georgia.
- two individuals were among 200-250 Yellow-legged Gulls in port of Batumi on 24 November;
- at least of eight individuals were observed in large flock (up to 3500) of Yellow-legged Gulls in Chorokhi River mouth on 27 November;
- solitary was een on 28 November in Maltakva River mouth, southern environs of Poti, Western Georgia;

Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus)
Rare irregular breeder in Southern Georgia. Irregularly nests in small numbers on the some lakes and marshes of eastern part of Lesser Caucasia - at Javakheti Upland - on Khanchali, Khozapini, Madatapa and some other lakes. Several times small colonies (10-15 pairs) were found at Tabatskuri Lake. Number of breeding pairs in known colonies fluctuated between 11 and 62 (data for the1983-1995). No data on total number of breeding pairs since 1996. Rare year-round non-breeding visitor in Kura river valley, more often recorded during post-breeding movements. Occasional visitor in wetlands in other areas. Vagrant at the Black Sea coast and coastal wetlands. It should be noticed that number of wintering individuals in Eastern Georgia increased since the middle of 1990''s.
- solitary was observed on 20 September at bank of Dzirula River in Zestaphoni town, Western Georgia. A very few of records from this area;
- from 4 to 11 birds were presented every day at Lisi Lake (NW environs of Tbilisi City) during last week of October - first decade of November. Occasional visitor to site;
- about 30 were on 1 December and 43+ on 11 December at Tbilisi reservoir;
- 20-50 birds (max up to 120 ind. on 7 December) were recorded regularly at Kura (Mtkvari) River banks in Gory town and environs during second half of November - first half of December;
- at least 460 individuals were counted along Kura (Mtkvari) River banks within the limits of Tbilisi City on 14 December and about 70 in Rustavi town;

Yellow-legged Gull (Larus cacchinans)
Rare to uncommon breeder at coastlands and common nomadic species in whole of country. Nests by small colonies in some points along Black Sea coast - at Paleostomi Lake (Abuladze, Eligulashvili, 1988), in Chorokhi River mouth and at some wetlands of Western Kolkhida. Number of breeding pairs fluctuated between 50 and 120 (data for 1980s-90s). Very common winter visitor.
Several large flocks were recorded in the end of November at the Black Sea coat in SW Georgia:
- 200-250 were in port of Batumi and up to 150 in Makhinjauri on 24 November;
- 3000-3500 individuals were in Chorokhi River mouth on 27 November;
- up to 300 were on 28 November in Maltakva River mouth on 29 November;

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)
Vagrant. During last 30 years not more than six times solitary individuals were recorded at Black Sea coast in winter.
Solitary (1st winter bird with typical for Herring Gull field marks) was observed in mouth of Supsa River , Black Sea coast, Western Georgia near Supsa Oil Terminal during several minutes from a distance of 20-25 m in flock of about 40 Yellow-legged Gulls Larus cachinans

Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus)
Rare to uncommon on passage along Black Sea coast, at coastal lowlands and in valleys of large rivers of Western Georgia. Rarely and in small numbers recorded in Eastern Georgia.
Flock of 20+ individuals was observed on 30 October at Kumisi Lake (41.45''N 44.51''E; 3.4 sq.km; 475m a.s.l.) SE Georgia, Marneuli district.
An unusually late autumn record and remarkable concentration to site.

White-winged Black Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus)
Uncommon to common passage visitor. Dates of presence at the territory of Georgia:2nd decade of April - middle of May; end of July end of September. Probably irregular scarce breeder at the lakes in highlands of Southern Georgia, but breeding here not confirmed.
At least of eight individuals were observed at small lake in southern part of Batumi town on 17 November.
An unusually late autumn record.

Alpine Swift (Apus melba)
Common breeder in dry open areas with presence of precipices, rocks, cliffs in middle and upper belts of mountains, table-lands, beyond over to 800 m a.s.l. and in semi-deserts. More common in Eastern Georgia. Scarce on passage. Nests by small colonies (20-40 pairs), located at cliffs. Probably decreasing in some areas during recent decades.
Small flock (5-15+ birds) was observed several times in the middle of September at motor-road Baghdathi-Sairme, Baghdathi district, Western Georgia. Rare passage visitor and probably rare migratory breeder in Khanistzkali River Gorge. Breeding here not confirmed.

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)
Uncommon breeder in suitable habitats - on rivers with slow stream of water and steep banks. Regular, but not numerous winter bird. Decreasing during last three decades due to river''s management, water pollution and, probably, pesticides. Several thousand pairs supposed to be breeding in country.
At least of 14 birds were counted at distance of about 1,2 km along banks of Khanistzkali River lower Baghdathi, mostly near Rokiti village on 20 September, that is noticeable high density.

Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus
Rare resident with local seasonal vertical movements. Syrian Woodpecker Inhabits mainly broad-leaved woodland on lowlands and plains, rarely nests in mixed forests. During winter movements often recorded in arid woodlands. Present numbers and population trends is unknown, possibly decreasing. Species was included in the Red Data Book of Georgia (1983).
- solitary was recorded in artificial tree-belt at Kakheti motor-road near Patardzeuli village, Sagarejo district, Easter Georgia on 4 July. First summer record for area;
- solitary was recorded on 22 July in garden near Krtzanisi, SE environs of Tbilisi. First summer record to area;
- solitary was recorded on 9 September in Vaziani, eastern environs of Tbilisi. Unusual location;
- solitary was observed on 3 October in Park of Mtazminda in Tbilisi. Unusual location;

Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius)
Year-round resident. Formerly uncommon, but at present rare and decreasing species. Extirpated as a regular breeder species in some areas. Occurs mainly in south-eastern areas (perhaps several tens pairs). Prefers open mature deciduous woods, large gardens and old parks. Occasional visitor at lowlands of Western Georgia.
Solitary was recorded on 14 September in garden near Japana fish-ponds in Rioni River valley, Western Georgia. A few of recent records to area.

Guldenstadt''s Redstart (Phoenicurus erythrogaster)
In general rare, locally uncommon year-round resident with vertical seaonal movements. During breeding season occurs only in the most upper altitude belt of Main Caucasian Range and its southern spurs at central and eastern parts of Great Caucasus. Breeding habitats are located in the alpine and sub-nival belts at narrow, dark gorges with glaciers, rocky plots of steep slopes, alpine meadows. From middle of October to middle of March goes down to river valleys and occurs in thickets of sea-buckthorn, other berry species.
Species was included in the 1st edition of Red Data Book of Georgia (1983).
Flocks of 3-5 birds and solitary individuals several times were recorded during last days of November - first decade of December in small villages near Zhinvali reservoir, along right bank of Aragvi River and along Georgian Military motor-road between Zhinvali reservoir and Pasanauri village, Dusheti ditrict, Eastern Georgia. Vagrant or, probably, very rare in small numbers irregular winter visitor to area and very early winter records for such altitude.

Bearded Tit (Panurus biarmicus)
Rare sporadic year-round resident. More common in south-eastern Georgia. Inhabits banks of shallow lak





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